How Many Sessions Can a Kurento Server Hold?

Here’s a question we come across quite often at testRTC.

You decided to self develop your own service. Manage your own media servers. And now that time comes to understand your ongoing costs as well as decide on the scale out scheme – at what point do you launch/spawn a new server to take up some of the load from your current media servers farm? How many users can you cram into a single media server anyway?

We decided to check just that, doing it with the help of who worked with us on the setup.

For the purpose of these set of sizing experiments, we picked up Kurento, one of the most versatile open source media servers out there today. We selected a few key scenarios, and installed the server and configured it for us.

We then used our testRTC probes to understand how many users can we cram on the server in each scenario.

Simple scenario sizing is one step in the process. If you are serious about your service, then check out our best practices to stress testing your WebRTC application.

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Why Kurento?

There are a couple of reasons why we picked Kurento for this one.

  1. Because many use it out there, and we’ve been helping customers understand and debug it when they needed to
  2. It is versatile. We could try multiple scenarios with it with relative ease and little programming (although that wasn’t our part of the project)
  3. It does media processing beyond just routing media. We wanted to see how this will affect the numbers, especially considering the last reason below
  4. It’s the first of a few media servers we’re going to play with, so stay with us on this one

The Scenarios

For the Kurento service, we picked up 3 different scenarios we wanted to test:

  1. 1:1 video calls. A typical doctor visitation or similar scenario, where two participants join the same session and the session gets recorded (two separate streams, one for each participant).
  2. 4-way group video calls. The classic scenario, in an MCU configuration. Kurento decodes and encodes all media streams, so we’re giving it quite a workout
  3. Live broadcast. A single person talking to a large group of viewers.

For scenarios (1) and (2) our question is how many concurrent sessions can the Kurento server hold.

For scenario (3) our question is how many viewers for a single broadcast can the Kurento server hold.

The Setup

To set things up for our test, we did the following:

  • We went for a simple AWS t2.medium machine, but quickly had to switch to a more capable machine. We ended up with a c4.2xlarge instance (8 vCPU, 15 GB RAM) on AWS
  • We had it monitored via New Relic, to be able to check the metrics (but later decided to forgo this approach and just use top with root access directly on the machine)
  • We also had an easy way to reset the Kurento server. We knew that rattling it too much between tests without a reset would affect our results. We wanted a clean slate each time we started

The machine was hosted in Amazon US-East.

testRTC probes were coming in from a different cloud vendor, East and West US locations.

We didn’t do any TURN related stuff – so our browser traffic hit the Kurento server directly and over UDP.

The Process

For each scenario, we’ve written a simple test script that can scale nicely.

We then executed the test script in its minimal size.

For 1:1 video calls and broadcasts we used 2 probes and for the 4-way group video call we started with 4 probes.

We ran each test for a period of 4-5 minutes, to check the stability of the media flow.

We used that as the baseline of our results and monitored to see when adding more probes caused the media metrics to start faltering.

1:1 Video Calls

The above screenshot is what you’ll see if you participated in these sessions. There’s a picture in picture view of the session, where the full screen area is the remote incoming video and the smaller window holds our local view.


Kurento’s basic configuration limits bitrate of calls to around 500kbps. This can be seen from running a single session in our high level chart:

And here’s the stats on the channels of one of the two probes in this baseline test run:

Now that we have our baseline, it was time to scale things up.

30 Probes (=15 sessions)

When we went up to 30 probes, running in 15 parallel 1:1 video sessions, we ended up with this graph:

While the average bitrate is still around 500kbps, we can see that the min/max bands are not as stable.

If we look at the packet loss graph, things aren’t happy (the baseline had no packet losses):

This is where we went for the “By probe” tab, looking at individual bitrates across the probes:

What we can see immediately is that 4 probes out of 30 didn’t get the full attention of the Kurento media server – they got to send and receive less than 500kbps.

If we switch to the packet loss by probe, we see this:

A couple of things that come to mind:

  1. Kurento degrades quality to specific sessions and not across the board. Out of 30 users, 22 got the expected results, 4 had lower bitrates and another 4 had packet losses
  2. There’s correlation here. When Probe #04 exhibits reduction in bitrate, Probe #3 reports incoming packet losses

From here, we can easily go down the path of drilling down to the probes that showed issues. I won’t do it now, as there’s still a lot to cover.

22 Probes (=11 sessions)

It stands to reason then that lowering the capacity to 22 probes should give us pristine results.

Here’s what we’ve seen instead:

We still have that one session that goes bad.

20 or 18?

When we went down to 18 or 20 probes, things got better.

With 20 the issue is that we couldn’t really reproduce a good result at all times. Sometimes, the scenario worked, and other times, it looked like the issues we’ve seen with the 22 probes.

18 though seemed rather stable when tested a couple of times:

Depending on the service you’re offering, I’d pick 18. Or even go down to 16…

4-Way Group Video Calls

The above is a screen capture of the 4-way group video call scenario we’ve analyzed.

In this case, each probe (browser) sends out video at a resolution of 640×360 and receives a video resolution of 800×600.

The screenshot doesn’t show the images getting cropped, so we can assume the Kurento media server takes the following approach to its pipeline:

That’s lots of processing needed for each probe added, which means we can expect lower scaling for this scenario.


Our baseline this time is going to need 4 probes.

Here’s high the high level video graph looks like:

Not as stable as our 1:1 video calls, but it should do for what’s coming.

Note that each probe still has around 500kbps of video bitrate.

I’ll skip the drill down into the results of a specific probe metrics and take this as our baseline.

20 Probes (=5 sessions)

Since 1:1 video sessions didn’t go well above 20, we started there and went down.

Here’s how 20 probes look like:


Checking packet losses and bitrates by probe yielded similar results to the bad 1:1 sessions. Here’s the by probe bitrate graph:

Going down to 16 probes (=4 sessions) wasn’t any better:

I’ve actually looked at the bitrates and packet losses by probe, and then decided to map them out into the sessions we had:

This paints a rather grim picture – all 4 sessions hosted on the Kurento server suffered in one way or another. Somehow, the bad behavior wasn’t limited to one session, but showed itself on all of them.

Down to 12 Probes (=3 sessions)

We ended up with 12 probes showing this high level bitrate graph:

It showed some sporadic packet losses that were spread across 3 different probes. The following shows the high level by probe bitrate graph:

There’s some instability in the bitrates and the packet losses which will need some further investigation, but this is probably something we can work with and try and optimize our service to run well.

Live Broadcast

The above screenshot shows what a viewer sees on a live broadcast scenario that we’ve set up using Kurento.

We’ve got multiple testRTC probes joining the same broadcast, with the first one acting as the broadcaster and the rest are just viewers.


Our baseline this time is going to need 2 probes. A broadcaster and a viewer.

From now on, we’ll be focusing on what the viewers experience – a lot more than what happens to the broadcaster.

We’re still in the domain of 500kbps for the video channel:

One thing to remember here – outgoing media happens only for our broadcaster probe and incoming media happens for all the other probes.

30 Probe (=29 viewers)

We started with 30 probes – assuming we will fail miserably based on our previous tests, and got positively surprised:

Solid bitrate for this test.

Climbing up

We’ve then started moving up with the numbers.

50, 60 and 80 probes went really well.

Got our appetite, and jumped towards 150 probes.

And ended up with this high level graph:

There wasn’t any packet loss to indicate why that drop with the broadcaster at around 240 seconds, so I switch to the “By probe” view.

This showed that things were starting to deteriorate somewhat:

We’re sorting the results just for this purpose – you can see there’s a slight decline in average bitrate across the probes here – something that is a lot less apparent for smaller test sizes. There was no packet loss.

We’ve tried going upwards to 200, but then 12 probes didn’t even connect properly:

Going down to a 100 yielded some connection errors in some of the probes as well. Specifically, I saw this one:

This indicates we’ve got a wee bit of an issue here that needs to be solved before we can continue our stress tests any further. Most probably in the signaling layer of our server. It is either unstable when we place so many viewers at once against it, or just doesn’t really handle the load well enough.

Results Summary

The table below shows the various limits we’ve reached in our rounds of sizing tests:

Scenario Size
1:1 video calls 18 users in 9 parallel sessions
4-way group video calls 3 rooms of 4 users each
Live broadcast 1 broadcaster + 80-150 viewers

What did we learn?

  1. Stress testing for sizing purposes is fun. I actually enjoyed going through the results and running a couple of tests of my own (I didn’t write the scripts or run the initial tests – I delegated that to our support engineer)
  2. Different scenarios will dictate very different sizing. With more time, I’d start working out on finding the bottlenecks and optimizing them – I’m sure more can be squeezed out of a Kurento machine
  3. Once set up and written intelligently, it’s really easy to rerun the tests and change the number of probes used

Next Steps

Once we got to the sweet spot in each scenario, the next thing to do would probably to run it more than once.

We usually setup a testRTC monitor to run once every 15 minutes to an hour for a couple of days on such a scenario, just to make sure we’re seeing stable results more than once.

Other than that, this needs to be tested under different network conditions, varying load factors, etc.

Check out our best practices for stress testing WebRTC applications. It is relevant even if you are not using testRTC

Get the best practices guide

I’d like to thank for the assistance in setting this one up. If you are looking for a capable vendor to custom build your WebRTC application – check them out.

Matt - September 13, 2017

Nice work. Very informative.

    Tsahi Levent-Levi - September 13, 2017

    Thanks Matt.

    Hope to see you later today in our webinar. I am sure you’ll find the live demos quite interesting 🙂

Paul Gregoire - September 14, 2017

Great write-up Tsahi, thanks for the mega details

    Tsahi Levent-Levi - September 14, 2017

    Thanks Paul.

    Would be interesting to see how Red5 fairs as well 😉

RealTimeWeekly | RealTimeWeekly #197 - September 18, 2017

[…] How Many Sessions Can a Kurento Server Hold? […]

Roey - September 20, 2017

that’s very interesting, and also quite disappointing…
c4.2xlarge is quite a strong instance.

    Tsahi Levent-Levi - September 20, 2017

    Remember this was non optimized on a machine instance on Amazon, for 3 broad use cases.

    Not sure if the numbers are too low or now – should need to check other types of solutions to see.

    For each of the 3 use cases we’ve tried, in reality, we’d be using a totally different machine configuration to tackle the problem, as they use different machine resources.

cherishsantosh - September 22, 2017

Nice work Tshi, It will help me in current project. still Red5 in industry?

    Tsahi Levent-Levi - September 22, 2017


    Red5Pro is there with a WebRTC product. Got some parties interested in testing that one out, though haven’t looked at it closely myself.

How Many Users Can Fit in a WebRTC Call? • - January 15, 2018

[…] and media servers is something I have been doing lately at testRTC. We’ve played a bit with Kurento in the past and are planning to tinker with other media servers. I get this question on every other […]

David - January 16, 2018

So from your test with a c4.2xlarge we can handle at most 3 concurrents video conference (4 peoples)? I have hard time understanding why Twilio endorse Kurento and why it’s so widely use.

Elasticrpc claims you can handle hundreds of streams with a single c3.large instance.

    Tsahi Levent-Levi - January 16, 2018


    Look at the type of call we tested – it is a 4-way call running in an MCU model, which means the server decodes, scales, composes and encodes all incoming video streams. That’s heavy on the computation side.
    What Twilio/Kurento/ElasticRCS and practically most of the industry is doing in meetings is use an SFU model, which is different.

    Which brings us to the notion of counting and streams – a 4-way call ends up as 12 outgoing media streams from an SFU. More than 3 concurrent calls, but less than hundreds if you plan on c3.large…

    Many of our customers come to us in order to understand how many users they can cram into a single server.

teru - February 20, 2018

What was the maximum amount of data processing?
In a broadcast situation using RTMP – DASH
We know that you can calculate the maximum number of people to connect depending on the bandwidth pipe.

With webRTC, I wonder what the maximum throughput was.

    Tsahi Levent-Levi - February 22, 2018

    The throughput would depend greatly on a lot of factors.

    Things like machine makeup, network interfaces, architecture of the backend and your specific requirements will change the scale. Remember that the lower the latency you are targeting, the more “energy” you need to invest in the solution.

Amar Essa - December 21, 2018

These are bad results for kurento , in case of the 1:1 nine sessions is very poor for the sea instance used, if each user requirements is 500kbs in and maybe 500kbs out that means each user consume 1000kbs both ways, 18 users = 18000kbs which isn’t much for the appropriate aws bandwidth and instance to handle with only forwarding and no processing, I suggest finding the issue of the limitations.

On the other hand the 4 way conferencing you have done doesn’t show its architecture thus
We can’t tell if it’s consuming to much resources ,
If you have used a hub mixer with 4sinks and 4sources or 4sinks and one source to httpendpoint, you basically must include the architecture of the media elements,pipes and all else.

Same goes for the broadcasting, please elaborate on the architecture and divulge into kurento configuration so we know what the bottom line is.

    Tsahi Levent-Levi - December 21, 2018

    We’ve done this over a year ago, so not something that can be easily reconstructed.

    The whole idea of this post was to show that different configurations of a media server yields totally different behavior patterns, breakage points and sizing.

    Our customers make use of our service to investigate exactly these issues for their own deployments of their own media servers and infrastructure.

Arash - May 11, 2020

I was about to choose Kurento as our media server that I found your article, thank you.
I know Janus, Jitsi, Mediasoup, and antmedia are other open source options but I’m not sure about their capabilities and limitations and I am searching for a webrtc media server that could hold for at least 10,000 in the broadcast. if you could tell me about their limitation or which one is better for a large audience or guide me in any way to find out, that would be great and I will be thankful for that. Thank You

    Tsahi Levent-Levi - May 11, 2020

    Not sure that Kurento is the best approach for broadcast. I haven’t seen it used by anyone for that purpose in a long time. Try Janus or mediasoup if you’re doing open source and want broadcast.

Karel - August 19, 2020

What alternatives are there for MCU servers? So far all open source initiatives that I’ve seen focus on SFU; which is probably the logical choice. But for a project I need specifically an MCU setup. Presumably (part of) the bad performance of the MCU configuration (4-way video calls) is because of de-/encoding which puts a lot of pressure on the CPU. If only Kurento (or any other MCU-WebRTC server) would support GPU

    Tsahi Levent-Levi - August 19, 2020

    There’s FreeSWITCH and the Intel Media Server.

    For the SFU ones you can usually connect them to ffmpeg or gstreamer to get the mixing feature for recording or RTMP streaming.

pedro - October 12, 2020

good evening,
I have the following question, I have a project type of webcamer pages (cam4), even a developer has given me a script that is based on openvidu, but my question is, can openvidu Kurento or other free software support a page like cam4? where there are 1000 simultaneous connections transmitting and for example 10 thousand users watching and many more in another one by one? or would you advise me to use other software? Twilio maybe, thank you very much

    Tsahi Levent-Levi - October 12, 2020

    You will need more than a single server to handle high load.

Claudio Faustino - August 31, 2021

Hello, Congratulation for the article. It is very informative.

I managed to perform some tests using Kurento and for my use case, which is, just one speaker e 100 listeners, I was able to make it work with a C5.large instance (which has 2 cores). I notice that, even opening many session in Kurento, only one core was used! There is any configuration I should set in order to make kurento use more than one core?

    Tsahi Levent-Levi - September 1, 2021

    This question is more suitable for the Kurento mailing list I’d assume

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